Omnibus Election Code - Article XI
ELECTORAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND EXPENDITURES
Sec. 94. Definitions. - As used in this Article:
- The term "contribution" includes a gift, donation, subscription, loan, advance or deposit of money or anything of value, or a contract, promise or agreement to contribute, whether or not legally enforceable, made for the purpose of influencing the results of the elections but shall not include services rendered without compensation by individuals volunteering a portion or all of their time in behalf of a candidate or political party. It shall also include the use of facilities voluntarily donated by other persons, the money value of which can be assessed based on the rates prevailing in the area.
- The term "expenditure" includes the payment or delivery of money of anything of value, or a contract, promise or agreement to make an expenditure, for the purpose of influencing the results of the election. It shall also include the use of facilities personally owned by the candidate, the money value of the use of which can be assessed based on the rates prevailing in the area.
- The term "person" includes an individual, partnership, committee, association, corporation, and any other organization or group of persons.
- Public or private financial institutions: Provided, however, That nothing herein shall prevent the making of any loan to a candidate or political party by any such public or private financial institutions legally in the business of lending money, and that the loan is made in accordance with laws and regulations and in the ordinary course of business;
- Natural and juridical persons operating a public utility or in possession of or exploiting any natural resources of the nation;
- Natural and juridical persons who hold contracts or sub-contracts to supply the government or any of its divisions, subdivisions or instrumentalities, with goods or services or to perform construction or other works;
- Natural and juridical persons who have been granted franchises, incentives, exemptions, allocations or similar privileges or concessions by the government or any of its divisions, subdivisions or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations;
- Natural and juridical persons who, within one year prior to the date of the election, have been granted loans or other accommodations in excess of P100,000 by the government or any of its divisions, subdivisions or instrumentalities including government-owned or controlled corporations;
- Educational institutions which have received grants of public funds amounting to no less than P100,000.00;
- Officials or employees in the Civil Service, or members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines; and
- Foreigners and foreign corporations.
It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit or receive any contribution from any of the persons or entities enumerated herein.
Sec. 96. Soliciting or receiving contributions from foreign sources. - It shall be unlawful for any person, including a political party or public or private entity to solicit or receive, directly or indirectly, any aid or contribution of whatever form or nature from any foreign national, government or entity for the purposes of influencing the results of the election.
Sec. 97. Prohibited raising of funds. - It shall be unlawful for any person to hold dances, lotteries, cockfights, games, boxing bouts, bingo, beauty contests, entertainments, or cinematographic, theatrical or other performances for the purpose of raising funds for an election campaign or for the support of any candidate from the commencement of the election period up to and including election day; or for any person or organization, whether civic or religious, directly or indirectly, to solicit and/or accept from any candidate for public office, or from his campaign manager, agent or representative, or any person acting in their behalf, any gift, food, transportation, contribution or donation in cash or in kind from the commencement of the election period up to and including election day; Provided, That normal and customary religious stipends, tithes, or collections on Sundays and/or other designated collection days, are excluded from this prohibition.
Sec. 98. True name of contributor required. - No person shall make any contribution in any name except his own nor shall any candidate or treasurer of a political party receive a contribution or enter or record the same in any name other than that of the person by whom it was actually made.
Sec. 99. Report of contributions. - Every person giving contributions to any candidate, treasurer of the party, or authorized representative of such candidate or treasurer shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, file with the Commission a report under oath stating the amount of each contribution, the name of the candidate, agent of the candidate or political party receiving the contribution, and the date of the contribution.
Sec. 100. Limitations upon expenses of candidates. - No candidate shall spend for his election campaign an aggregate amount exceeding one peso and fifty centavos for every voter currently registered in the constituency where he filed his candidacy: Provided, That the expenses herein referred to shall include those incurred or caused to be incurred by the candidate, whether in cash or in kind, including the use, rental or hire of land, water or aircraft, equipment, facilities, apparatus and paraphernalia used in the campaign: Provided, further, That where the land, water or aircraft, equipment, facilities, apparatus and paraphernalia used is owned by the candidate, his contributor or supporter, the Commission is hereby empowered to assess the amount commensurate with the expenses for the use thereof, based on the prevailing rates in the locality and shall be included in the total expenses incurred by the candidate.
Sec. 101. Limitations upon expenses of political parties. - A duly accredited political party may spend for the election of its candidates in the constituency or constituencies where it has official candidates an aggregate amount not exceeding the equivalent of one peso and fifty centavos for every voter currently registered therein. Expenses incurred by branches, chapters, or committees of such political party shall be included in the computation of the total expenditures of the political party.
Expenses incurred by other political parties shall be considered as expenses of their respective individual candidates and subject to limitation under Section 100 of this Code.
Sec. 102. Lawful expenditures. - To carry out the objectives of the preceding sections, no candidate or treasurer of a political party shall, directly or indirectly, make any expenditure except for the following purposes:
- For travelling expenses of the candidates and campaign personnel in the course of the campaign and for personal expenses incident thereto;
- For compensation of campaigners, clerks, stenographers, messengers, and other persons actually employed in the campaign;
- For telegraph and telephone tolls, postage, freight and express delivery charges;
- For stationery, printing and distribution of printed matters relative to candidacy;
- For employment of watchers at the polls;
- For rent, maintenance and furnishing of campaign headquarters, office or place of meetings;
- For political meetings and rallies and the use of sound systems, lights and decorations during said meetings and rallies;
- For newspaper, radio, television and other public advertisements;
- For copying and classifying list of voters, investigating and challenging the right to vote of persons registered in the lists the costs of which shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of expenses which a candidate or political party may have incurred under Sections 100 and 101 hereof; or
- For printing sample ballots in such color, size and maximum number as may be authorized by the Commission and the cost of such printing shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of expenses which a candidate or political party may have incurred under Sections 100 and 101 hereof.
Sec. 103. Persons authorized to incur election expendiitures. - No person, except the candidate, the treasurer of a political party or any person authorized by such candidate or treasurer, shall make any expenditure in support of or in opposition to any candidate or political party. Expenditures duly authorized by the candidate or the treasurer of the party shall be considered as expenditures of such candidate or political party.
The authority to incur expenditures shall be in writing, copy of which shall be furnished the Commission signed by the candidate or the treasurer of the party and showing the expenditures so authorized, and shall state the full name and exact address of the person so designated.
Sec. 104. Prohibited donations by candidates, treasurers of parties or their agents. - No candidate, his or her spouse or any relative within the second civildegree of consanguinity or affinity, or his campaign manager, agent or representative shall during the campaign period, on the day before and on the day of the election, directly or indirectly, make any donation, contribution or gift in cash or in kind, or undertake or contribute to the construction or repair of roads, bridges, school buses, puericulture centers, medical clinics and hospitals, churches or chapels cement pavements, or any structure for public use or for the use of any religious or civic organization: Provided, That normal and customary religious dues or contributions, such as religious stipends, tithes or collections on Sundays or other designated collection days, as well as periodic payments for legitimate scholarships established and school contributions habitually made before the prohibited period, are excluded from the prohibition.
Sec. 105. Accounting by agents of candidate or treasurer. - Every person receiving contributions or incurring expenditures by authority of the candidate or treasurer of the party shall, on demand by the candidate or treasurer of the party and in any event within five days after receiving such contribution or incurring such expenditure, render to the candidate or the treasurer of the party concerned, a detailed account thereof with proper vouchers or official receipts.
Sec. 106. Records of contributions and expenditures. -
- It shall be the duty of every candidate, treasurer of the political party and person acting under the authority of such candidate or treasurer to issue a receipt for every contribution received and to obtain and keep a receipt stating the particulars of every expenditure made.
- Every candidate and treasurer of the party shall keep detailed, full, and accurate records of all contributions received and expenditures incurred by him and by those acting under his authority, setting forth therein all information required to be reported.
- Every candidate and treasurer of the party shall be responsible for the preservation of the records of contributions and expenditures, together with all pertinent documents, for at least three years after the holding of the election to which they pertain and for their production for inspection by the Commission or its duly authorized representative, or upon presentation of a subpoena duces tecum duly issued by the Commission. Failure of the candidate or treasurer to preserve such records or documents shall be deemed prima facie evidence of violation of the provisions of this Article.
Sec. 107. Statement of contributions and expenditures. - Every candidate and treasurer of the political party shall, not later than seven days, or earlier than ten days before the day of the election, file in duplicate with the office indicated in the following section, full, true and itemized, statement of all contributions and expenditures in connection with the election.
Within thirty days after the day of the election, said candidate and treasurer shall also file in duplicate a supplemental statement of all contribution and expenditures not included in the statement filed prior to the day of the election.
Sec. 108. Place for filing statements. - The statements of contributions and expenditures shall be filed as follows:
- Those of candidates for President and Vice-President, with the Commission.
- Those of candidates for Members of the Batasang Pambansa, with the provincial election supervisor concerned, except those of candidates in the National Capital Region which shall be filed with the regional election director of said region.
- Those of candidates for provincial offices, with the provincial election supervisor concerned.
- Those of candidates for city, municipal and barangay offices, with the election registrar concerned.
If the statement is sent by mail, it shall be by registered mail, and the date on which it was registered with the post office may be considered as the filing date thereof if confirmed on the same date by telegram or radiogram addressed to the office or official with whom the statement should be filed.
The provincial election supervisors and election registrars concerned shall, within fifteen days after the last day for the filing of the statements, send to the Commission duplicate copies of all statements filed with them.
Sec. 109. Form and contents of statement. - The statement shall be in writing, subscribed and sworn to by the candidate or by the treasurer of the party, shall be complete as of the date next preceding the date of filing and shall set forth in detail (a) the amount of contribution, the date of receipt, and the full name and exact address of the person from whom the contribution was received; (b) the amount of every expenditure, the date thereof, the full name and exact address of the person to whom payment was made, and the purpose of the expenditure; (c) any unpaid obligation, its nature and amount, and to whom said obligation is owing; and (d) such other particulars which the Commission may require.
Sec. 110. Preservation and inspection of statements. - All statements of contributions and expenditures shall be kept and preserved at the office where they are filed and shall constitute part of the public records thereof for three years after the election to which they pertain. They shall not be removed therefrom except upon order of the Commission or of a competent court and shall, during regular office hours, be subject and open to inspection by the public. The officer in-charge thereof, shall, on demand, furnish certified copies of any statement upon payment of the fee prescribed under Section 270 hereof.
Sec. 111. Effect of failure to file statement. - In addition to other sanctions provided in this Code, no person elected to any public office shall enter upon the duties of his office until he has filed the statement of contributions and expenditures herein required.
Sec. 112. Report of contractor and business firms. - Every person or firm to whom any electoral expenditure is made shall, within thirty days after the day of the election, file with the Commission a report setting forth the full names and exact addresses of the candidates, treasurers of political parties, and other persons incurring such expenditures, the nature or purpose of each expenditure, the date and costs thereof, and such other particulars as the Commission may require. The report shall be signed and sworn to by the supplier or contractor, or in case of a business firm or association, by its president or general manager.
It shall be the duty of such person or firm to whom an electoral expenditure is made to require every agent of a candidate or of the treasurer of a political party to present written authority to incur electoral expenditures in behalf of such candidate or treasurer, and to keep and preserve at its place of business, subject to inspection by the Commission or its authorized representatives, copies of such written authority, contracts, vouchers, invoices and other records and documents relative to said expenditures for a period of three years after the date of the election to which they pertain.
It shall be unlawful for any supplier, contractor or business firm to enter into contract involving election expenditures with representatives of candidates or political parties without such written authority.